V.I.T.R.I.O.L (Masonic/Alchemical Motto)
The alchemical motto for vitriol is “Visita Interiora Terrae Rectificando Invenies Occultum Lapidem,” “Visit the interior of the earth and rectifying (purifying) you will find the hidden stone.” The motto originated in L’Azoth des Philosophes by the 15th Century alchemist Basilius Valentinus.
In chemistry, vitriol is iron or copper sulfate salts and their derivative, sulfuric acid. The name comes from the Latin for “glassy,” after the resemblance of iron sulfate to shards of green glass. Vitriol is symbolized alchemically as the “green lion,” a poisonous substance that appears when metal is degraded by acid. Sulfuric acid, or oil of vitriol, was used in the synthesis of the lapis philosophorum- the Philosopher’s Stone. One unique property of sulfuric acid is the dissolution of metals- all except for gold, on which it has no effect.
|Green Lion through fire purification we obtain the red Lion|
The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit name ‘Shulbary’ meaning enemy of copper (Sulphur was known in ancient time to destroy the metallic property of copper). Deposits of free elemental sulphur occur in areas of volcanic activity. The natural sources of occurrence of sulphur in combined state are (i) H2S in sour natural gas and organic compounds containing sulphur in crude oil, (ii) pyrite (FeS2) and other metal sulphide minerals and (iii) sulphate minerals like gypsum (CaS04). Sulphur : The Element
Sulphur (S) is a non metal belonging to the VIA group / group 16 and the 3rd period in the p-block of periodic table. It is placed below oxygen. The atomic number of sulphur is 16 with electronic configuration (2,8,6). The atomic mass of sulphur is 32. lu. Sulphur shows a variable valency of 2,4 and 6 (e.g. H2S, S02, SO3 are the compounds of sulphur).
Properties of Sulphur : Physical Properties :Sulpur is a non- metallic, brittle, yellow solid. It is insoluble in water but dissolves in organic solvents such as carbon disulphide, methyl benzene. It is a bad conductor of electricity in solid, molten and dissolved state.
Allotropes of Sulphur: Sulphur exists in two crystalline solid forms, rhombic sulphur and inonoclinic sulphur The property by which an element exists in two or more forms is called allotropy. Different forms of element are known as allotropes. The allotrope rhombic sulphur is stable at temperatures below 94.5°C. Therefore, sulphur is normally found in this form. When rhombic sulphur is heated to 94.5°C if is transformed into the other allotrope called monoclinic sulphur. Monoclinic sulphur is stable between 94.5°C to 120°C. If monoclinic sulphur is cooled it transforms into rhombic sulphur at 94.5°C. The shapes of rhombic and monoclinic sulphur are shown in Fig. 1.4.
|Rhombic sulfur and the unfinished pyramid|
When molten sulphur is cooled, it solidifies into monoclinic sulphur. Sublimate of sulphur is called ‘flower of sulphur’. When sulphur is obtained by a chemical reaction as precipitate it is called ‘milk of sulphur’. These are made up of rhombic sulphur. Scientists have discovered many more allotropes of sulphur under different conditions.
All of them get transformed into rhombic sulphur at room temperature.
|Kether the Crown of the Kabbalah|
- Sulphur has catenating power. It forms strong S-S covalent bonds. This results in formation of Sg molecules. Sg molecules have a shape of a crown like ring (Fig. 1.5). Both, rhombic and monoclinic sulphur contain S8 rings. At high temperatures smaller molecules like Sg, S4, S2, S also exist.
Sulfur or sulphur ( /ˈsʌlfər/ SUL-fər; see spelling below) is the chemical elementwith atomic number 16, represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalentnon-metal. At normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant orreducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several nonmetals, including carbon, which leads to its negatives charge in mostorganosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygenand fluorine.
In nature, sulfur can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, mentioned for its uses inancient Greece, China and Egypt.
|St Peters Square Vatican octagonal division|
|Mount temple top view|
|Mount temple fron view|
This tessellation can be seen as the Voronoi tessellation of theface-centred cubic lattice. Some minerals such as garnet form a rhombic dodecahedral crystal habit. Honeybees use the geometry of rhombic dodecahedra to form honeycomb from a tessellation of cells each of which is a hexagonal prism capped with half a rhombic dodecahedron. The rhombic dodecahedron also appears in the unit cells of diamond and diamondoids. In these cases, four vertices are absent, but the chemical bonds lie on the remaining edges
|Copper sulfate crystal|
The rhombic dodecahedron forms the hull of the vertex-first projection of a tesseract to 3 dimensions. There are exactly two ways of decomposing a rhombic dodecahedron into 4 congruent parallelepipeds, giving 8 possible parallelepipeds. The 8 cells of the tesseract under this projection map precisely to these 8 parallelepipeds.
The rhombic dodecahedron forms the maximal cross-section of a 24-cell, and also forms the hull of its vertex-first parallel projection into 3 dimensions. The rhombic dodecahedron can be decomposed into 6 congruent (but non-regular) square dipyramids meeting at a single vertex in the center; these form the images of 6 pairs of the 24-cell’s octahedral cells. The remaining 12 octahedral cells project onto the faces of the rhombic dodecahedron. The non-regularity of these images are due to projective distortion; the facets of the 24-cell are regular octahedra in 4-space.
This decomposition gives an interesting method for constructing the rhombic dodecahedron: cut a cube into 6 congruent square pyramids, and attach them to the faces of a second cube. The triangular faces of each pair of adjacent pyramids lie on the same plane, and so merge into rhombuses. The 24-cell may also be constructed in an analogous way using two tesseracts.
- A particularly popular polyhedron is the pyramid. If we restrict ourselves to regular polygons for faces, there are three possible pyramids: the triangle-based tetrahedron, the square pyramid, and the pentagonal pyramid. Being bounded by regular polygons, these last two fall within the class of Johnson solids. One interesting property of pyramids is that like the tetrahedron, their duals are also pyramids. (Incidentally, the Egyptian pyramids have square bases but the triangular side faces are not quite equilateral; they are very close to half a golden rhombus.)
|Louvre Pyramid and rhombic sulfur
( Note the structure is also build up with golden rhombus )
as above so below
|One of the rhombic triacontahedron’s rhombi|
An octahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope.
A vertex configuration is given as a sequence of numbers representing the number of sides of the faces going around the vertex. A a.b.c means a vertex has 3 faces around it, with a, b, and c sides.
|Solomon’s Signet Ring With Seal Diagram, “Isis Unveiled”, by Madame Blavatsky.|
|Double headed eagle illumiati symbol
The eagle symbolizes man, two sides left and right, divide and conquer
through was symbolized by the sword, the crown as them above.
|The dual of a cube is an octahedron,
shown here with vertices at the cube face centers.
In geometry, polyhedra are associated into pairs called duals, where the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other. The dual of the dual is the original polyhedron. The dual of a polyhedron with equivalent vertices is one with equivalent faces, and of one with equivalent edges is another with equivalent edges. So the regular polyhedra — the Platonic solids and Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra— are arranged into dual pairs, with the exception of the regular tetrahedron which is self-dual.
Duality is also sometimes called reciprocity or polarity.
|Masonic floor rhombic black and white tiles encrypting good and evil|
An octahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a cross polytope.
Star of David Freemasonery, magic hexagram
An octahedron can be placed with its center at the origin and its vertices on the coordinate axes; the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are then
- ( ±1, 0, 0 );
- ( 0, ±1, 0 );
- ( 0, 0, ±1 ).
Area and volume
The surface area A and the volume V of a regular octahedron of edge length a are:
Thus the volume is four times that of a regular tetrahedron with the same edge length, while the surface area is twice (because we have 8 vs. 4 triangles).
|The octahedron represents the central intersection of two tetrahedra|
|Stella octangula and Toth, Hernes, Methatron etc|
Octahedra and tetrahedra can be alternated to form a vertex, edge, and face-uniformtessellation of space, called the octet truss by Buckminster Fuller. This is the only such tiling save the regular tessellation of cubes, and is one of the 28 convex uniform honeycombs. Another is a tessellation of octahedra and cuboctahedra.
The octahedron is unique among the Platonic solids in having an even number of faces meeting at each vertex. Consequently, it is the only member of that group to possess mirror planes that do not pass through any of the faces.
Uniform colorings and symmetry
The octahedron’s symmetry group is Oh, of order 48, the three dimensional hyperoctahedral group. This group’s subgroups include D3d (order 12), the symmetry group of a triangularantiprism; D4h (order 16), the symmetry group of a square bipyramid; and Td (order 24), the symmetry group of a rectified tetrahedron. These symmetries can be emphasized by different colorings of the faces.
|Wythoff symbol||4 | 3 2||2 | 4 3||| 3 2 2|